Citicoline increases glucose metabolism

Citicoline increases glucose metabolism in the brain and cerebral blood flow. [1]

Cocaine dependence is associated with depleted dopamine levels in the central nervous system. In cocaine-dependent individuals citicoline increases brain dopamine levels and reduces cravings.[2]

In the general population citicoline increases brain responses to food stimuli, specifically in the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, which correlate with decreased appetite.[3]

Natural synthesis

The brain prefers to use choline to synthesize acetylcholine. This limits the amount of choline available to synthesize phosphatidylcholine. When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be catabolized from neuronal membranes. These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. [4]

Food sources of Choline

  • Shrimp
  • Eggs
  • Scallops
  • Chicken
  • Turkey
  • Tuna
  • Cod
  • Salmon
  • Beef
  • Collard Greens

Links for food sources of choline:

Chemical formula

Citicoline


Citicholine


References

  1. Watanabe S, Kono S, Nakashima Y, Mitsunobu K, Otsuki S (1975). “Effects of various cerebral metabolic activators on glucose metabolism of brain”. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica. 29 (1): 67–76.
  2. Renshaw PF, Daniels S, Lundahl LH, Rogers V, Lukas SE (Feb 1999). “Short-term treatment with citicoline (CDP-choline) attenuates some measures of craving in cocaine-dependent subjects: a preliminary report”. Psychopharmacology. 142 (2): 132–8.
  3. Killgore WD, Ross AJ, Kamiya T, Kawada Y, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DA (Jan 2010). “Citicoline affects appetite and cortico-limbic responses to images of high-calorie foods”. The International Journal of Eating Disorders. 43 (1): 6–13.
  4. Adibhatla RM, Hatcher JF, Dempsey RJ (Jan 2002). “Citicoline: neuroprotective mechanisms in cerebral ischemia”. Journal of Neurochemistry. 80 (1): 12–23.