Method to keep body on high energy level

Get up early.

Go run your mile or two in accelerating pace. Take shorter intervals if it is hard to accelerate for long distance or exercise.

If you experience muscle pain during acceleration or after consider about Magnesium supplements.

Common symptoms of Magnesium deficiency include food cravings (salt or carbs), constipation, high blood pressure, rapid heartbeat or palpitations, muscle pains and spasms, fatigue, headaches, and depression symptoms such as mood swings, anxiety and irritability.

Take cold swimming or shower in the middle of workout.

Keep out of sweating. Sweating means too low voltage of brain.
Exercising in this condition is considered to be harmful for body.

Getting cooled means keeping your brain voltage high enough while exercising.

Do hard exercising after cold exposure. Try to keep accelerating intensity, speed of workout. Loosing pace means to loose your voltage and the beginning of sweating.

If you feel hot after workout, take a cold shower or bath after it.

Have a meal just after workout. Meal after workout would inhibit excessive excitement (dopamine) after workout. Meal would also trigger serotonin in the brain keeping high energy level while dopamine is at the rest.

Serotonin is one of the so-called inhibitory neurotransmitters that serves to balance any excessive excitatory (stimulating) neurotransmitter (like dopamine) firing in the brain. With adequate serotonin levels in the brain and its proper functioning, you will be positive, happy, confident, flexible, and easy-going. With low levels of serotonin, you will begin to display serotonin deficiency symptoms by becoming negative, obsessive, worried, irritable, sleepless, or depressed.

Start with some fat. Fat will turn of Glucagon hormone which is activated during active catabolism while exercising and getting cold exposure.

It is good to cut carbs out of menu completely. But you can eat few grapes, for example, to activate insulin system and accelerate anabolic metabolism.

Stay away from all types grains and starches – these are not foods 🙂
Polysaccharides would constantly trigger dopamine in the brain, might lead to dopamine depletion, loose of motivation and self organization at the end of the day.

Some recipes for energy sustainable meal.

Take warm or even hot bath after meal.

Feeling cool in warm water is the right sign, meaning your cells are active to take nutrients in.
Warm water accelerates anabolic metabolism, while you enjoy the bath.
If its too hot – get it a bit cooler. Stress will inhibit anabolic metabolism here.

Take a nap after bath. Even 15 minutes would be great. But an hour would be Platinum edition for your energy level for the next day.

 

 

 

 

 

Bad Posture and how to fix it

Posture is the major element what determines the attitude of surrounded people and even animals :). Seagulls might attack, dogs bite and small children kick your ass, if you would have a bad posture.

Bad posture is a common problem in today’s society. Sitting at desks all day long and looking at your smartphone developed a poor posture for many people.

But also a wrong workout or an unbalanced training can lead to a bad posture with that you will destroy your strength gains and risk to injure your body. If you do a lot of push exercises like bench presses or push ups and too little exercises for your posterior chain, You are tightening your muscles that are already tight and muscles that are already weak have no chance to work against them. (weak Erector spinae)

This results in a forward head position slouching shoulders and around an upper back. (weak Rhomboids & Trapezius transversus, tight Pectoralis & front Delts) |This is not only about the horrible look, it can also lead to neck pain and muscular imbalances. (weak neck Extensors, tight neck Flexors) To avoid or to correct this, we need to activate our muscles in the posterior chain and stretch and relax the tight muscles in the anterior chain.

Minding the natural S curves of the spine is not the goal to achieve a complete straight back. But to activate our weak and stretch to tight muscles. When you activate your weak muscles you should aim for an extended spine and a wide range of motion to work against tight and overused muscles.

Activate weak muscles + stretch tight muscles

Reverse plank bridge – a posture correcting exercise

Reverse plank bridge - posture fix exercise
Reverse plank bridge

One of the best movements you can do for correcting your posture is the reverse plank bridge.  This exercise activates muscles like your Middle Trapezius, your Rhomboids your Erector spinae and your Neck Flexes. While streching your pecs, your long head of the biceps, your front deltoids and your neck extensors.

To do this exercise correctly:

  • You have to keep your arms straight.
  • Pull your shoulders back.
  • Bring your shoulder blades together.
  • And tuck your chin.
  • Push your shest up as much as possible.
  • And extend your spine.

You can do this exercise with different hand placements, fingers pointing forward or backward. If you place your hands with fingers pointing backwards, you will activate your external shoulder rotators. And this will result in a better shoulder stability. You also achieve a higher range of motion, and the bed or stretching in your chest, biceps and front delts.

Exercise: Arch off with the posterior tilted pelvis

Arch off exercise for posture improvement
Picture from: https://spinerf.org/breaking-down-the-exercises-that-break-down-your-spine/

The next exercise is the arch off with the posterior tilted pelvis. It consists of three different movements.

The first one is the shoulder flexion. This movement is very good to open up your shoulders, for example, to improve your handstand and all over overhead exercises. Push your arms and your shoulder blades upwards, and try to raise your arms as high as possible without bending them or arch your lower back.

The next part is the horizontal abduction. Here you also try to lift your arms as high as possible, but this time, you try to bring your shoulder blades together. This will activate your rhomboids and your middle traps.

The last part is about the shoulder extension. This will work better against the tight front delts than the other two arm positions.

In all three movements you tuck your chin and look to the ground. This will activate your neck flexors and stretch your neck extensors. You should also aim for an external rotation of your arms (thumbs upwards), because this will work against the internal rotation of the tight muscles. The last key point for this exercise is the extension of your thoracic spine. Because this will activate your Erectus bene.

Rowing movements may help to improve posture

Inverted Row exercise for posture improvement
Inverted Row exercise. Picture from: https://www.girlsgonestrong.com/blog/strength-training/exercise-spotlight-inverted-row/

The third and last exercise for improving your posture is any kind of rowing movements. You can do body rows, rows with the band, seated cable rows, or even dumbbell and barbell rows. No matter, which kind you do, don’t just move your arms,. It’s very important to keep your spine slightly extended, pull your shoulders back, and bring your shoulder blades together.  Avoid a rounded back and the forwarded head position.

The key to improve your posture is to do it on regular basis, and not only for a few weeks. Your daily posture fails will always remain the same or even get worse. So, don’t limit the duration of a training, that improves strength, coordination and mobility. You will also profit from a functional full-body workout instead of an isolated one-sided training program. If you want to know, how such a function of full body workout program feels, just go to the Calisthenic movement website and try our workout programs.

Which are the largest muscles in the body?

Most of body’s glycogen is stored in muscles. It is worth to know which muscles may provide the biggest storage. And therefore it pays off to focus your attention while doing workout.

We’ve often thought that the largest muscles in the body are the pecs, legs and back.

However, new research published in the Journal of Strength and Conditional Researh suggests that the size of the muscle might not be what counts.

In order to compare muscle size, the respectable researchers analyzed existing studies.

They wanted to know muscle sizes in cubic centimeters. After hard anddedicated work, they found out which are the largest muscles.

Top five largest muscles are:

  • 5th place: Illiopsoas
  • 4th place: Triceps Brachii
  • 3rd place: Deltoid
  • 2nd place: Gluteus maximus
  • 1st place goes to Quadriceps femoris.

If you want to get an aesthetic physique, remember to develop all body muscles equally.

The 1st largest muscle – Quadriceps femoris

The quadriceps femoris is a group of muscles located in the front of the thigh. The latin translation of “quadriceps”is “four headed”, as the group contains four separate muscles: The vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius and the rectus femoris. These four muscles cover the front and sides of the femur (thighbone).

Exercises for the rectus femoris strengthen your legs, increasing athletic capability and contributing to improvements in physical appearance and body composition. For strength grains, do exercises for your rectus femoris two or three times a week. Suggests the LiveStrong.com

The rectus femoris is an important muscle with two heads originating from the pelvis. Most noteworthy the rectus femoris muscle is the only one of the quadriceps muscles that crosses the hip joint. The rectus femoris muscle continues down the thigh and is then inserted into the top of the patella.

Quadriceps tendon  rupture occurs more in males of older age groups suffering from metabolic diseases such as: gout, diabetes, renal failure and hyperthyroidism. It seems in the result of inactiveness of the muscle.

The 2nd largest muscle – Gluteus maximus

The body’s largest muscle is the gluteus maximus, one of three muscles that form your buttocks, or rear end.

Not only does your gluteus maximus help keep your torso, it gives you the strength to jump, run and walk uphill.

You see. without your gluteus maximus, you wouldn’t be able to extend your thigh, and this important motion makes it possible to climb, run and stand up from a sitting position.

The gluteus maximus also allows you to rotate your thigh, or turn it outward.

The two other gluteal muscles are the gluteus medius and the gluteus minimus.

Not only is the gluteus maximus larger than these two, it’s the one on top, or closest to the skin.

 

How to fuck a woman’s brains out

 

how to fuck a woman's brains out_Cover

HOW TO FUCK
A WOMAN’S BRAINS OUT
(v3.0)
By ThornDaddy
Forward by Dollie Llama

eBook v3.00 – ISBN: 978-0-97053-928-1
Paperback book – ISBN: 978-0-97053-922-9

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Health and Stress management pyramid

Here it comes. The stress management pyramid of GotoSurvive.com

According to our research main reason for stress is lack of positive attitude from the opposite sex. What inevitably results in the lack of matting opportunity. In turn this is caused either by low energy level or bad appearance or both.

3. Stress caused by lack of matting opportunity

3.1 Have sex

Sex. The purpose of life 🙂 and why to follow energy and appearance steps in effective stress management. Actually sex alone would fix any stress issue. The problem is – sex involves a partner who would prefer and choice someone with high energy level, good outfit, nice home, fitting its social and cultural niche etc.

2. Stress caused by low energy level.

2.4. Sleep to store energy

Sleep at least 8 hours a day. Have a nap after meal 0.5 to 2 hours long. Sleep when you feel the body needs it.

2.3. Warm post meal environment to keep low resistance of cells

Having a hot or warm bath during or right after the meal. Warm shower also fits in. Candle lights, calming music and fragrance, rose leaves would add to the anabolic post meal effect of warm bath. Sitting at fireplace would also fit in as well as having warm environment in any other way.

2.2. Eat some food

Diet which includes eating carbs and protein separately. Having one or two meals per day. One day fruits, other day meat with fat. Or fruits in the first meal and meat with vegetables in the second several hours after the first meal.  Preferable meat is lamb or calf. May accompany meal with a glass of wine, cognac or brandy.
Totally exclude from consumption all cereals, grains, pasta, pica, flour products etc, because they are mixtures of complex carbohydrate with protein (up to 10%) and that is what screws everything.

2.1. Create more space for energy by arranging some positive stress before meal.

2.1.1  Apply Fasting for 16 or more hours on daily basis

Fasting 16 or more hours before meal. Skip breakfast.

2.1.2 Involve as much muscles into Workout

Take into attention the largest muscle groups.

swimming, gymnastics, fitness, running, jumping, athletics

2.1.3 Get into Coldness

Cold shower, Winter swimming, Ice swimming, Cold bath, Ice bath

1. Stress caused by bad appearance
either individually or socially

  • Appearance according to individual psychological perception;
  • Appearance according to local social and cultural traditions.

1.3. Reduce stress caused by limited self expression.

1.3.1. Express yourself in motion, sound, smell, art. Keeping physical and mental balance is critical for the expression. Regular Balance exercises would help.
1.3.2 Manage your expression to fit in cultural frame of the particular social group

1.2. Reduce stress caused by bad outfit.

1.2.1 Take care about your outfit and Outlook. Always appear the same but a bit better than others. Clean, new clothes, good smell and grooming would help.
1.2.2 Manage your outfit according to local cultural traditions, fashion trends of the particular group. Keeping in mind the social status you are going to take in the group’s social hierarchy.

1.1. Reduce spatial, environmental stress. Take care about Your “nest”, environment appearance and match to local culture.

1.1.1 Create pleasant & harmonic environment around you
Familiar, light, clean, large, noiseless, silent, harmonic, calming, warm Environment, Surroundings, Home interior and exterior, Car, Garden etc.  Music, calming sounds. Fire light, candles, fireplace. Fresh air, good smell. In opposite to dark, dirty, foreign, stinky, noisy, cold,  limited, narrow place.
1.1.2 Match local cultural traditions of a particular social group in your environment, home interior and surroundings.
For example. If you are Catholic – having cross with Jesus on the wall is the must – even if you actually don’t believe to it much. If Muslims takes over the city – burn the cross, paint the wall in green color and place golden crescent and a star right next to it. 🙂 Otherwise you’ll be a white bird ravens wouldn’t hesitate to beak to. And it has nothing to do with your actual believes. All nature behaves like this – beats the different one. Just imagine what dominant Homo Sapiens would do with you for the cultural mismatch 🙂

How to balance your stress

Here is my stress management tips.

Stress induction tips

Stress relieving tips

Before you eat do following:

While eating and right after:

  • Eat. Eat carbs separate from protein with at least 6 hour gap. Bread as all grains and cereals is a mixture of protein (up to 10%) and complex carbs – it’s strongly recommended to avoid!
  • Take hot bath right before, while or after your meal.
  • Sleep 0.5 to 2 hours after your meal.
.. ..
.. ..

Social stress induction

Lack of positive attitude towards you.

Especially from the opposite sex.

Social stress relieve

Having a positive attitude towards you.

Especially from the opposite sex.

Audience attitude induces stress while . . .

You are limited to express yourself

  • keeping yourself silent when you want or have something to say.
  • keeping yourself motionless when a action requires. 
  • having a bad outfit, being dirty, gray, dark, looking small, imbalanced.
  • stinking, bad smelling 🙂
  • lacking dominant position in social hierarchy of the particular group.

Audience attitude relieves stress while . . .

You are able to express yourself

  • in sound, speak, sing, scream, just being loud.
  • in motion, dance, run, jump, swim, fly, play, painting, etc.
  • by having good outfit and appearance, clean, harmonic in colors, looking big and tall, balanced.
  • in smell, fresh, pleasant smell around you.
  • having dominant position in social hierarchy of the particular group.
.. ..
.. ..

Spatial stress inducing tips

Spatial stress relieving tips

Being in Unpleasant place

  • Foreign place
  • Limited space, basement, hole
  • Dark space
  • Cold place
  • Stinking place
  • Noisy environment
  • Dirty environment

 

Being at pleasant place

  • Home
  • Having lot of space, big home and dining room. Travel and discover new places
  • Light place, sunlight, candles, fire light
  • Warm place, fireplace
  • Fresh smelling place, rose garden, morning in the forest, etc.
  • Silent environment or calming sounds and music
  • Clean environment

 

. . . .

Hypothesis about nature of cancer

Why chemotherapy is effective to fight cancer?

As it seems, cancer cells do not became resistant to insulin. This property allows toxins enter the cancer cell, while other cells keeps themselves shut (resistant). In the case of chemotherapy, toxins entering the cancer cell destroys it. It might be, that nature of cancer cells are to be recycle bins for the body. If the garbage is poisonous enough it destroys the bin. Quite rude medication, isn’t it 🙂

If this hypothesis is right, it’s strongly recommended to go on strict Keto diet, while being on chemotherapy. No carbs are allowed to consume, especially the complex ones – grains, cereals, potatoes etc. Carbohydrates will rise insulin levels, and it might overcame the resistance of normal cells. So toxins of chemotherapy will destroy the normal cells as well, if it gets in there. These risks are higher with higher blood sugar levels.

Insulin resistance in “normal” cells causes cancer cells to grow.

Excessive glucose in the blood stream might be the culprit of cancer. High glucose level is toxic for the body and at the same time cause high insulin level. Insulin forces cells with low resistance (all cancer cells)  to grow. As cancer cells  have resistance mechanism against insulin action and glucose, they start to grow exponentially. There is why diabetics usually die from a cancer not diabetes.

Factors that might cause insulin resistance in “normal” cells:

  1. Chemical factors:
    1. Foreign molecules  for enzymes of particular DNA.
    2. Poisons, drugs, medication.
    3. Proteins.
    4. Mixing carbohydrates with protein in one meal. (Bread and any cereal foods are such mixtures).
    5. Infection.
  2.  Physical factors:
    1.  Coldness.
    2. Darkness.
    3. Constraints, limited space.
    4. Physical workout in cells which are not involved.
    5. Sedentary brain work – sitting at computer, phone, watching TV, Reading, worrying.
  3. Psychological (Unpleasant) factors: 
    1. Absence of positive sexual recognition from opposite sex.
    2. Dirty environment.
    3. Pain.
    4. Being at the bottom. narrow. limited space.
  4. Social factors:  
    1. Being different than others.
    2. Diverging from local culture and traditions.
    3. Being alone.
    4. Lack of sex.

Factors that lowers cells resistance to insulin:

  1. Chemical factors:
    1. Alcohol (except beer).
    2. ..
  2. Physical factors, Shifting the body’s energy consumption to a lesser extent:
    1. Switching cold shower to warm.
    2. Coming in from cold outside to warm inside.
  3. Psychological factors:
    1. Recognition from opposite sex.
    2. Switching something unpleasant, stressful to pleasant and peaceful.
    3. Tasty food.
    4. Clean environment.
    5. Everything pleasant, especially while eating, – candles, music, plants.
    6. Being at the top, opposite of being in the pit.
    7. Money.
    8. Experience sunrise.
  4. Social factors:
    1. Being with your family.
    2. Sex.
    3. Looking like all others.
    4. Following local culture and traditions.

 

 

 

 

Social

Conversation in Park (1746) by Thomas-Gainsborough (1727-1788)

Conversation in a Park by Thomas Gainsborough, 1746

Living organisms including humans are social when they live collectively in interacting populations, whether they are aware of it, and whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.

Etymology

The word “Social” derives from the Latin word socii (“allies”). It is particularly derived from the Italian Socii states, historical allies of the Roman Republic (although they rebelled against Rome in the Social War of 91-88 BC).

Definition

In the absence of agreement about its meaning, the term “social” is used in many different senses and regarded as a concept, referring among other things to:

Attitudes, orientations, or behaviors which take the interests, intentions, or needs of other people into account (in contrast to anti-social behaviour) has played some role in defining the idea or the principle. For instance terms like social realism, social justice, social constructivism, social psychology, social anarchism and social capital imply that there is some social process involved or considered, a process that is not there in regular, “non-social” realism, justice, constructivism, psychology, anarchism, or capital.

The adjective “social” is also used often in politics, although its meaning in a context depends heavily on who is using it. In left-wing circles it is often used to imply a liberal characteristic, while in right-wing circles it is generally used to imply a conservative characteristic. This adjective is used much more often by those on the political left than by those on the political right. For these reasons, those seeking to avoid association with the left-right political debates often seek to label their work with phrases that do not include the word “social”. An example is quasi-empiricism in mathematics which is sometimes labelled social constructivism by those who see it as an unwarranted intrusion of social considerations in mathematical practice.

Social theorists

In the view of Karl Marx[1] human beings are intrinsically, necessarily and by definition social beings who, beyond being “gregarious creatures”, cannot survive and meet their needs other than through social co-operation and association. Their social characteristics are therefore to a large extent an objectively given fact, stamped on them from birth and affirmed by socialization processes; and, according to Marx, in producing and reproducing their material life, people must necessarily enter into relations of production which are “independent of their will”.

By contrast, the sociologist Max Weber[1] for example defines human action as “social” if, by virtue of the subjective meanings attached to the action by individuals, it “takes account of the behavior of others, and is thereby oriented in its course”.

In socialism

The term “socialism“, used from the 1830s onwards in France and the United Kingdom, was directly related to what was called the social question. In essence, early socialists contended that the emergence of competitive market societies did not create “liberty, equality and fraternity” for all citizens, requiring the intervention of politics and social reform to tackle social problems, injustices and grievances (a topic on which Jean-Jacques Rousseau discourses at length in his classic work The Social Contract). Originally the term “socialist” was often used interchangeably with “co-operative“, “mutualist“, “associationist” and “collectivist” in reference to the organization of economic enterprise socialists advocated, in contrast to the private enterprise and corporate organizational structures inherent to capitalism.

The modern concept of socialism evolved in response to the development of industrial capitalism. The “social” in modern “socialism” came to refer to the specific perspective and understanding socialists had of the development of material, economic forces and determinants of human behavior in society. Specifically, it denoted the perspective that human behavior is largely determined by a person’s immediate social environment, that modes of social organization were not supernatural or metaphysical constructs but products of the social system and social environment, which were in turn products of the level of technology/mode of production (the material world), and were therefore constantly changing. Social and economic systems were thus not the product of innate human nature, but of the underlying form of economic organization and level of technology in a given society, implying that human social relations and incentive-structures would also change as social relations and social organization changes in response to improvements in technology and evolving material forces (relations of production). This perspective formed the bulk of the foundation for Karl Marx’s materialist conception of history.

Modern uses

In contemporary society, “social” often refers to the redistributive policies of the government which aim to apply resources in the public interest, for example, social security. Policy concerns then include the problems of social exclusion and social cohesion. Here, “social” contrasts with “private” and to the distinction between the public and the private (or privatised) spheres, where ownership relations define access to resources and attention.

The social domain is often also contrasted with that of physical nature, but in sociobiology analogies are drawn between humans and other living species in order to explain social behavior in terms of biological factors. The term “social” is also added in various other academic sub-disciplines such as social geographysocial psychologysocial anthropologysocial philosophysocial ontologysocial statistics and social choice theory in mathematics.

See also

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Morrison, Ken. Marx, Durkheim, Weber. Formations of modern social thought

External links

Social status

Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.[1][2] At its core, status is about who is thought to be comparatively better.[3] These beliefs about who is better or worse are broadly shared among members of a society.[4] As such, status hierarchies decide who gets to “call the shots,” who is worthy, and who deserves access to valuable resources. In so doing, shared cultural beliefs uphold systems of social stratification by making inequality in society appear natural and fair.[5] Status hierarchies appear to be universal across human societies, affording valued benefits to those who occupy the higher rungs, such as better health, social approval, resources, influence, and freedom.[2]

Status hierarchies depend primarily on the possession and use of status symbols. These are cues people use to determine how much status a person holds and how they should be treated.[6] Such symbols can include possession of socially valuable attributes, like being conventionally beautiful or having a prestigious degree. Wealth and the display of it through conspicuous consumption are also indicators of status.[7]

Determination

Some perspectives on social status emphasize its relatively fixed and fluid aspects. Ascribed statuses are fixed for an individual at birth, while achieved status is determined by social rewards an individual acquires during his or her lifetime as a result of the exercise of ability and/or perseverance.[8] Examples of ascribed status include castesrace, and beauty among others. Meanwhile, achieved statuses are akin to one’s educational credentials or occupation: these things require a person to exercise effort and often undergo years of training.

The status that is the most important for an individual at a given time is called master status.[9][10]

In different societies

Status refers to the relative rank that an individual holds; this includes attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honor or prestige. Status has two different types that come along with it: achieved, and ascribed. The word status refers to social stratification on a vertical scale.

In modern societies, occupation is usually thought of as the main determinant of status, but other memberships or affiliations (such as ethnic groupreligiongender, voluntary associations, fandomhobby) can have an influence.[11][12] Achieved status is when people are placed in the stratification structure based on their individual merits or achievements. This status can be achieved through education, occupation, and marital status. Their place within the stratification structure is determined by society’s bar, which often judges them on success, success being financial, academic, political and so on. America most commonly uses this form of status with jobs. The higher you are in rank the better off you are and the more control you have over your co-workers.

In pre-modern societies, status differentiation is widely varied. In some cases it can be quite rigid and class based, such as with the Indian caste system. In other cases, status exists without class and/or informally, as is true with some Hunter-Gatherer societies such as the Khoisan, and some Indigenous Australian societies. In these cases, status is limited to specific personal relationships. For example, a Khoisan man is expected to take his wife’s mother quite seriously (a non-joking relationship), although the mother-in-law has no special “status” over anyone except her son-in-law—and only then in specific contexts. All societies have a form of social status.

Status is an important idea in social stratificationMax Weber distinguishes status from social class,[13] though some contemporary empirical sociologists combine the two ideas to create socioeconomic status or SES, usually operationalised as a simple index of incomeeducation and occupational prestige.

Social status in nonhuman animals

Social status hierarchies have been documented in a wide range of animals: apes,[14] baboons,[15] wolves,[16] cows/bulls,[17] hens,[18] even fish,[19] and ants.[20] Natural selection produces status-seeking behavior because animals tend to have more surviving offspring when they raise their status in their social group.[21] Such behaviors vary widely because they are adaptations to a wide range of environmental niches. Some social dominance behaviors tend to increase reproductive opportunity,[22] while others tend to raise the survival rates of an individual’s offspring.[23] Neurochemicals, particularly serotonin,[24] prompt social dominance behaviors without need for an organism to have abstract conceptualizations of status as a means to an end. Social dominance hierarchy emerges from individual survival-seeking behaviors.

Social status inconsistency

Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual’s social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status. For example, a teacher may have a positive societal image (respect, prestige) which increases their status but may earn little money, which simultaneously decreases their status.

Inborn and acquired social status

In historic Chilean agriculture an inquilino is a labourer indebted to a landlord who allows him to form a farm in parts of his property

Social status is often associated with clothing and possessions. Compare the foreman with a horse and high hat with the inquilino in picture. Image from 19th century rural Chile.

Social statuses based on inborn characteristics, such as ethnicity, are called ascribed statuses, while statuses that individuals gained through their own efforts are called achieved statuses. Specific behaviors are associated with social stigmas, which can affect status.

Ascribed status is when one’s position is inherited through family. Monarchy is a widely recognized use of this method, to keep the rulers in one family. This usually occurs at birth without any reference as to how that person may turn out to be a good or bad leader.

Social mobility

Social status can be changed through a process of social mobility. Social mobility is change of position within the stratification system. A move in status can be upward (upward mobility), or downward (downward mobility). Social mobility allows a person to move to another social status other than the one he or she was born in. Social mobility is more frequent in societies where achievement rather than ascription is the primary basis for social status.

Social mobility is especially prominent in the United States in recent years with an ever-increasing number of women entering into the workplace as well as a steady increase in the number of full-time college students.[25][26]This increased education as well as the massive increase in multiple household incomes has greatly contributed to the rise in social mobility obtained by so many today. With this upward mobility; however, comes the philosophy of “Keeping up with the Joneses” that so many Americans obtain. Although this sounds good on the surface, it actually poses a problem because millions of Americans are in credit card debt due to conspicuous consumption and purchasing goods that they do not have the money to pay for.

Social stratification

Social stratification describes the way people are placed or “stratified” in society. It is associated with the ability of individuals to live up to some set of ideals or principles regarded as important by the society or some social group within it. The members of a social group interact mainly within their own group and to a lesser degree with those of higher or lower status in a recognized system of social stratification. Such ties between people are often fluid and amorphous. Some of the more common bases for such raking include:

Groups:

  • Wealth/Income (most common): Ties between persons with the same personal income
  • Gender: Ties between persons of the same sex and sexuality
  • Political status: Ties between persons of the same political views/status
  • Religion: Ties between persons of the same religion
  • Race/Ethnicity: Ties between persons of the same ethnic/racial group
  • Social class: Ties between persons born into the same economic group
  • Coolness: Ties between persons who have similar levels of popularity

Max Weber’s three dimensions of stratification

The German sociologist Max Weber developed a theory proposing that stratification is based on three factors that have become known as “the three p’s of stratification”: property, prestige and power. He claimed that social stratification is a result of the interaction of wealth (class), prestige status (or in German Stand) and power (party).[27]

  • Prestige is a significant factor in determining one’s place in the stratification system. The ownership of property is not always going to assure power, but there are frequently people with prestige and little property.
  • Property refers to one’s material possessions and their life chances. If someone has control of property, that person has power over others and can use the property to his or her own benefit.
  • Power is the ability to do what one wants, regardless of the will of others. (Domination, a closely related concept, is the power to make others’ behavior conform to one’s commands). This refers to two different types of power, which are possession of power and exercising power. For example, some people in charge of the government have an immense amount of power, and yet they do not make much money.

Max Weber developed various ways that societies are organized in hierarchical systems of power. These ways are social status, class power and political power.

  • Class Power: This refers to unequal access to resources. If you have access to something that someone else needs, that can make you more powerful than the person in need. The person with the resource thus has bargaining power over the other.
  • Social Status (Social Power): If you view someone as a social superior, that person will have power over you because you believe that person has a higher status than you do.
  • Political Power: Political power can influence the hierarchical system of power because those that can influence what laws are passed and how they are applied can exercise power over others.

There has been discussion about how Weber’s three dimensions of stratification are more useful for specifying social inequality than more traditional terms like Socioeconomic Status.[28]

Status group

Max Weber developed the idea of “status group” which is a translation of the German Stand (pl. Stände). Status groups are communities that are based on ideas of lifestyles and the honor the status group both asserts, and is given by others. Status groups exist in the context of beliefs about relative prestige, privilege, and honor and can be of both a positive and negative sort. People in status groups are only supposed to engage with people of like status, and in particular, marriage inside or outside the group is discouraged. Status groups can include professions, club-like organizations, ethnicity, race, and other groups for which pattern association.[29]

Pierre Bourdieu’s theory on class distinction

The French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu developed theories of social stratification based on aesthetic taste in his work Distinction. Bourdieu claims that how one chooses to present one’s social space to the world, one’s aesthetic dispositions, depicts one’s status and distances oneself from lower groups. Specifically, Bourdieu hypothesizes that these dispositions are internalized at an early age and guide the young towards their appropriate social positions, towards the behaviors that are suitable for them, and an aversion towards other lifestyles.

Bourdieu theorizes that class fractions teach aesthetic preferences to their young. Class fractions are determined by a combination of the varying degrees of social, economic, and cultural capital. Society incorporates “symbolic goods, especially those regarded as the attributes of excellence, […as] the ideal weapon in strategies of distinction”.[30] Those attributes deemed excellent are shaped by the interests of the dominating class. He emphasizes the dominance of cultural capital early on by stating that “differences in cultural capital mark the differences between the classes”.[31]

Aesthetic dispositions are the result of social origin rather than accumulated capital and experience over time. The acquisition of cultural capital depends heavily on “[t]otal, early, imperceptible learning, performed within the family from the earliest days of life”.[30]Bourdieu hypothetically guarantees that the opinions of the young are those that they are born into, the accepted “definitions that their elders offer them”.[32]

He asserts the primacy of social origin and cultural capital by claiming that social capital and economic capital, though acquired cumulatively over time, depend upon it. Bourdieu claims that “one has to take account of all the characteristics of social condition which are (statistically) associated from earliest childhood with possession of high or low income and which tend to shape tastes adjusted to these conditions”.[33]

According to Bourdieu, tastes in food, culture and presentation, are indicators of class, because trends in their consumption seemingly correlate with an individual’s fit in society.[34] Each fraction of the dominant class develops its own aesthetic criteria. A multitude of consumer interests based on differing social positions necessitates that each fraction “has its own artists and philosophers, newspapers and critics, just as it has its hairdresser, interior decorator or tailor.”[35]

Bourdieu does not wholly disregard the importance of social capital and economic capital in the formation of cultural capital. In fact, the production of art and the ability to play an instrument “presuppose not only dispositions associated with long establishment in the world of art and culture but also economic means…and spare time”.[36] However, regardless of one’s ability to act upon one’s preferences, Bourdieu specifies that “respondents are only required to express a status-induced familiarity with legitimate… culture”.[37]

“[Taste] functions as a sort of social orientation, a ‘sense of one’s place’, guiding the occupants of a given… social space towards the social positions adjusted to their properties, and towards the practices or goods which befit the occupants of that position”.[38] Thus, different modes of acquisition yield differences in the nature of preferences.[39]

These “cognitive structures…are internalized, ’embodied’ social structures”, becoming a natural entity to the individual.[40] Different tastes are thus seen as unnatural and rejected, resulting in “disgust provoked by horror or visceral intolerance (‘sick-making’) of the tastes of others.”[41]

Bourdieu himself believes class distinction and preferences are “most marked in the ordinary choices of everyday existence, such as furniture, clothing or cooking, which are particularly revealing of deep-rooted and long-standing dispositions because, lying outside the scope of the educational system, they have to be confronted, as it were, by naked taste”.[42] Indeed, Bordieu believes that “the strongest and most indelible mark of infant learning” would probably be in the tastes of food.[43] Bourdieu thinks that meals served on special occasions are “an interesting indicator of the mode of self-presentation adopted in ‘showing off’ a life-style (in which furniture also plays a part)”.[43] The idea is that their likes and dislikes should mirror those of their class fractions.

Children from the lower end of the social hierarchy are predicted to choose “heavy, fatty fattening foods, which are also cheap” in their dinner layouts, opting for “plentiful and good” meals as opposed to foods that are “original and exotic”.[33][43] These potential outcomes would reinforce Bourdieu’s “ethic of sobriety for the sake of slimness, which is most recognized at the highest levels of the social hierarchy,” that contrasts the “convivial indulgence” characteristic of the lower classes.[44] Demonstrations of the tastes of luxury (or freedom) and the tastes of necessity reveal a distinction among the social classes.

The degree to which social origin affects these preferences surpasses both educational and economic capital. In fact, at equivalent levels of educational capital, social origin remains an influential factor in determining these dispositions.[37] How one describes one’s social environment relates closely to social origin because the instinctive narrative springs from early stages of development.[45] Also, across the divisions of labor “economic constraints tend to relax without any fundamental change in the pattern of spending”.[46] This observation reinforces the idea that social origin, more than economic capital, produces aesthetic preferences because regardless of economic capability consumption patterns remain stable.

For Social status see also

References for Social status

  1. Jump up^ Sauder, Michael; Lynn, Freda; Podolny, Joel (2012). “Status: Insights from Organizational Sociology”Annual Review of Sociology38: 267–283. doi:10.1146/annurev-soc-071811-145503.
  2. Jump up to:a b Anderson, Cameron; Hildreth, John; Howland, Laura (2015). “Is the Desire for Status a Fundamental Human Motive? A Review of the Empirical Literature”. Psychological Bulletin141 (3): 574–601. doi:10.1037/a0038781PMID 25774679.
  3. Jump up^ Sedikides, C.; Guinote, A. (2018). “”How Status Shapes Social Cognition: Introduction to the Special Issue,”The Status of Status: Vistas from Social Cognition”. Social Cognition36(1): 1–3.
  4. Jump up^ Simandan, D., 2018. Rethinking the health consequences of social class and social mobility. Social Science & Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.11.037
  5. Jump up^ Ridgeway, Cecilia L.; Correll, Shelley (2006). “Consensus and the Creation of Status Beliefs”Social Forces85: 431–453. doi:10.1353/sof.2006.0139.
  6. Jump up^ Goffman, Erving (1951). “Symbols of Class Status”. British Journal of Sociology2 (4): 294–304. doi:10.2307/588083JSTOR 588083.
  7. Jump up^ Veblen, Thornstein (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class: An Economic Study of Institutions. MacMillan.
  8. Jump up^ Linton, Ralph (1936). The Study of Man. Appleton Century Crofts.
  9. Jump up^ Robert Brym; John Lie (11 June 2009). Sociology: Your Compass for a New World, Brief Edition: Enhanced Edition. Cengage Learning. p. 88. ISBN 0-495-59893-3.
  10. Jump up^ Ferris, Kelly, and Jill Stein. “The Self and Interaction.”Chapter 4 of The Real World: An Introduction to Sociology. W. W. Norton & Company Inc, Dec. 2011. Accessed 20 September 2014.
  11. Jump up^http://www.virginia.edu/topnews/textonlyarchive/September_1996/nerd.txt
  12. Jump up^ “The Effect of Middle School Extra Curricular Activities on Adolescents’ Popularity and Peer Status – EDER and KINNEY 26 (3): 298 – Youth & Society”. Yas.sagepub.com. 1995-03-01. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  13. Jump up^ Weber, Max. 1946. “Class, Status, Party.” pp. 180–95 in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (eds.). New York: Oxford University.
  14. Jump up^ Chimpanzee Politics (1982, 2007) deWaal, Frans, Johns Hopkins University Press
  15. Jump up^ Sapolsy, R.M. “Cortisol concentrations and the social significance of rank instability among wild baboons”. Journal of Psychoneuroendocrinology17: 701–09.
  16. Jump up^ Accessed 10 September 2012
  17. Jump up^ Rutberg, Allen T. (2010). “Factors Influencing Dominance Status in American Bison Cows (Bison bison)”Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie63 (2–3): 206–212. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1983.tb00087.x. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  18. Jump up^ Schjelderup-Ebbe, T. 1922. Beitrage zurSozialpsycholgie des Haushuhns. Zeitschrift Psychologie 88: 225–52. Reprinted in Benchmark Papers in Animal Behaviour/3. Ed. M.W.Schein. 1975
  19. Jump up^ Natalie Angier (1991-11-12). “In Fish, Social Status Goes Right to the Brain – New York Times”. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  20. Jump up^ Wilson, E.O, The Insect Societies (1971) Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  21. Jump up^ Wilson, E.O, Sociobiology (1975, 2000) Belknap Press of Harvard University Press
  22. Jump up^ Wrangham, R. and Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-87743-2.
  23. Jump up^ Smuts, B.B., Cheney, D.L. Seyfarth, R.M., Wrangham, R.W., & Struhsaker, T.T. (Eds.) (1987). Primate Societies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-76715-9
  24. Jump up^ Raleigh, Michael J. (1985). “Dominant social status facilitates the behavioral effects of serotonergic agonists”. Brain Res348: 274–82. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(85)90445-7.
  25. Jump up^ “OLMIS – Women in the Labor Force”. Qualityinfo.org. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  26. Jump up^ “Digest of Education Statistics, 2007 – Introduction”. Nces.ed.gov. Retrieved 2014-05-24.
  27. Jump up^ Tony Waters and Dagmar Waters, translators and eds., (2015). Weber’s Rationalism and Modern Society. Palgrave Macmillan.
  28. Jump up^ Waters, Tony and Dagmar Waters 2016 Are the terms “socio-economic status” and “social status” a warped form of reasoning for Max Weber?” Palgrave Communications 2, Article number: 16002 (2016) http://www.palgrave-journals.com/articles/palcomms20162
  29. Jump up^ Weber 48-56
  30. Jump up to:a b Bourdieu 66
  31. Jump up^ Bourdieu 69
  32. Jump up^ Bourdieu 477
  33. Jump up to:a b Bourdieu 177
  34. Jump up^ Bourdieu 184
  35. Jump up^ Bourdieu 231–32
  36. Jump up^ Bourdieu 75
  37. Jump up to:a b Bourdieu 63
  38. Jump up^ Bourdieu 466
  39. Jump up^ Bourdieu 65
  40. Jump up^ Bourdieu 468
  41. Jump up^ Bourdieu 56
  42. Jump up^ Bourdieu 77
  43. Jump up to:a b c Bourdieu 79
  44. Jump up^ Bourdieu 179
  45. Jump up^ Bourdieu 78
  46. Jump up^ Bourdieu 185

Further reading

  • Botton, Alain De (2004), Status Anxiety, Hamish Hamilton
  • Michael Marmot (2004), The Status Syndrome: How Social Standing Affects Our Health and Longevity, Times Books
  • Social status. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:
  • Stark, Rodney (2007). Sociology (10th ed.). Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0-495-09344-0.
  • Gould, Roger (2002). “The Origins of Status Hierarchy: A Formal Theory and Empirical Test”. American Journal of Sociology107 (5): 1143–78. doi:10.1086/341744.
  • McPherson, Miller; Smith-Lovin, Lynn; Cook, James M (2001). “Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks”. American Journal of Sociology27: 415–44. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.415.
  • Bolender, Ronald Keith (2006). “Max Weber 1864–1920”. LLC: Bolender Initiatives. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
  • Chernoff, Seth David (2015). “What is Success”.
  • Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: a Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, translated by Richard Nice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984.
  • Ridgeway, Cecilia (2014). “Why Status Matters for Inequality”. American Sociological Review79 (1): 1–16. doi:10.1177/0003122413515997.
  • Weber, Max (2015) “Classes, Stände, Parties,” pp. 37–58 in Weber’s Rationalism and Modern Society: New Translations on Politics, Bureaucracy, and Social Stratification Edited and Translated by Tony Waters and Dagmar Waters. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Inquilino

In historic Chilean agriculture an inquilino is a labourer indebted to a landlord who allows him to form a farm in parts of his property

19th century picture of an inquilino (left) and a foreman (right), in Chile, by De Claudio Gay, París, 1854.

In historic Chilean agriculture an inquilino is a labourer indebted to a landlord who allows him to form a farm in parts of his property (usually in the marginal lands to keep away intruders) and who in exchange works without pay for the landlord.[1] The inquilinos provided key manpower to carry out tasks like the gathering of livestock (rodeo) and slaughter. For inquilinos living in wheat-producing regions duties increased as the Chilean wheat cycle went on in from the 18th century onwards.[2] The inquilinaje institution that characterized large parts of Chilean agriculture were eliminated by the Chilean land reform in the 1960s and early 1970s.[3] Historian Mario Góngorahas researched on the history of the inquilinos.[4]

In modern Spanish the word has the same meaning as the English “tenant”.

References for Inquilino

  1. Jump up^ Inquilino >>RAE. Retrieved on July 4 2012.
  2. Jump up^ “Mestizos, inquilinos y vagabundos en Chile Colonial”Memoria Chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
  3. Jump up^ Rytkönen, P. Fruits of Capitalism: Modernization of Chilean Agriculture, 1950-2000. Lund Studies in Economic History, 31, p. 43.
  4. Jump up^ “Mario Góngora del Campo (1915-1985)”Memoria Chilena (in Spanish). Biblioteca Nacional de Chile. Retrieved December 30, 2015.